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REL 2020 Early Christian Thought- Franks: Citation and Library Help

Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.Click on the styles to access the Chicago Manual's online guide.

The Notes and Bibliography style: used by History, Literature and the Arts.

The Notes and Bibliography style (also known as the Humanities style) is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style uses a system of notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, and usually a bibliography. The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible. Because of this flexibility, the notes and bibliography system is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts.

The Author-Date style: used by Physical, Natural and Social Sciences.

The Author-Date style has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

MLA Citation Style

MLA Handbook

The MLA citation style was established by the Modern Language Association of America (MLA), and is most commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities, especially in the fields of language and literature. The examples in this guide show you how to cite the most commonly used sources.

The new edition of MLA Handbook was published in April 2016, and this citation guide reflects the updates introduced in the 8th edition. For a more detailed explanation of the updates, please see:

What’s New in the Eighth Edition


For additional citation examples and further MLA style information, please refer to the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition. Copies are available in Smith Library, Wanek Center Learning Commons and the SOE Resource Center (R808.02 G35m 2016).

HPU Librarians are always happy to answer your MLA citation questions! 

American Psychiatric Assoc. Citation Style

What is APA Style?

APA stands for the American Psychological Association, and it provides rules for how to format your paper and properly cite your sources. APA style is used in the social science disciplines (psychology, education, communication, etc.). When in doubt, just ask your professor which style to use.

You must cite all outside information sources used for a paper in order to avoid plagiarism, give credit to the original writer, and direct your reader to more information about your topic. Citations are not only for direct quotes--you also must cite sources when you summarize, paraphrase, or use any information (or images) from an outside source in any way.

This guide will introduce you to the most basic rules that you will need to know to write a properly formatted APA paper. For a full list of the rules, consult the Publication Manual of the APA (7th ed.). Copies are available at all three library locations, under the call number:

R 808.06615 P96pu 2020