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APA Citation Guide: Audiovisual

This category is characterized by a variety of author types. As with editors or translators of textual works, the role of the "author" can be clarified parenthetically after personal names. This can be a director, executive producer, writer, host, instructor, composer, recording artist, artist, screen name or photographer, depending on the type of source.

Film or video

For films, use the director as the author. Include the contributor's role in parentheses after the name. After the title, you can insert square brackets to clarify the format (e.g., [Film], [Documentary], or [Educational DVD]). The source is the name of the production company. If the video is available online, include the URL at the end of the citation.

Basic format:

Lastname, I. I. (Role of contributor). (Date). Title of film or video [Format]. Source. URL

Example (film): 

Kubrick, S. (Director). (1964). Dr. Strangelove, or, How I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb [Film]. Columbia Pictures.

Cited in text: (Kubrick, 1964)

 

Example (educational DVD): 

Vattano, F. J., & Bolt, M. (Directors). (2003). The many faces of psychology [Educational DVD]. Worth Publishers.

Cited in text (first time): (Vattano & Bolt, 2003)

Note. While both of these examples have directors, contributors can be Hosts, Guest experts, Producers, etc.

TV series or episode

For an entire TV series, use the executive producers as the author and the year range the show ran for the date. For a specific episode, use the writers and directors of the episode and the full date the episode first aired. Also include the season and episode number, and the full information for the series.

Basic format (TV series):

Lastname, I. I. (Role). (Year-Year). Title of series [TV series]. Production companies.

Example (TV series): 

Miller, M. (2017-2020). The handmaid's tale [TV Series]. MGM Television Entertainment, Hulu Originals.

Cited in text: (Miller, 2017-2020)

 

Basic format (Single episode of a TV show):

Lastname, I. I. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In I. I. Lastname, I. I. Lastname, & I. I Lastname (Executive Producers), Title of series. Production companies.

Example (Single episode of a TV show)

Fiore, N. (Writer), Herrera, J. (Writer), & Barker, M. (Director). (2019, July 3). Under his eye (Season 3, Episode 7) [TV series episode]. In B. Miller (Executive Producer) The handmaid's tale. MGM Television Entertainment, Hulu Originals.

Cited in text: (Fiore et al., 2019)

Music album, song, or track

For a classical music album, use the composer as the author. For modern albums, use the name of the recording artist or group.

Basic format (Full album):

Author. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label.

Example (Full album):

Pink Floyd. (1973). The dark side of the moon [Album]. Harvest Records.

Cited in text: (Pink Floyd, 1973)

 

Basic format (Song or track from an album): 

Author. (Year). Song or track title [Song]. On Title of album. Label.

Example (Song or track from an album): 

Pink Floyd. (1973). Us and them [Song]. On The dark side of the moon. Harvest Records.

Cited in text: (Pink Floyd, 1973)

Note. Include a URL at the end of these references ONLY if the URL is the only means of retrieval (for example, if the track was released on SoundCloud but not a label).

Audio recording

Use this format for an audio recording of a speech, interview, oral history, etc. Just use the square brackets after the title to clarify the type of recording.

Basic format:

Lastname, I. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of speech or interview [Format]. Source. URL

Example (Speech):

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

Cited in text: (King, 1963)

 

Example (Interview in an archive):

Altus, I. (1982, June 2). Outbreak of war [Interview audio recording]. Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive. http://holocaust.umd.umich.edu/interview.php?D=altus&section=7

Cited in text: (Altus, 1982)

YouTube Video

This format applies to any online or streaming video, but YouTube is unique in that you include the username of the account who uploaded the video in square brackets after the author name (if it is not the same as the author's name).

Basic format:

Lastname, I. I. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL

Example (personal account): 

Morton, K. [KatiMorton]. (2016, June 30). The pros & cons of being a therapist [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/ucs40UTep_w

Cited in text: (Morton, 2016)

 

Example (group author account): 

High Point University. (2016, February 18). LEGO at High Point University, School of Education [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/l6Exfm41qA4

Cited in text: (High Point University, 2016)

TED Talk

A TED talk follows nearly the same formula as a YouTube video. If you accessed the talk on the TED website, use the speaker as the author, but if you accessed it on YouTube, use TED as the author.

Basic format:

Lastname, I. I. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL

Example (TED talk on YouTube): 

TED. (2013, April 18). Andres Lozano: Parkinson's, depression, and the switch that might turn them off [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/gZCgWmose3c

Cited in text: (TED, 2013)

 

Example (same talk on TED website): 

Lozano, A. (2013, January). Parkinson's, depression, and the switch that might turn them off [Video]. TEDxCalTech. https://www.ted.com/talks/andres_lozano_ parkinson_s_depression_ and_the_switch_that_might_turn_them_off? utm_campaign= tedspread&utm_medium=referralutm_source=tedcomshare

Cited in text: (Lozano, 2013)

Note. When TED is cited as the author, include the speaker's name in the text.

Podcast

You can cite an entire podcast or a single episode of a podcast. Use the host or executive producer as the author.

Basic format (Podcast):

Author, I. I. (Host). (Year range). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Source. URL

Example (Podcast)

Vendantam, S. (Host). (2015-Present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/hidden-brain/id1028908750?mt=2&app=podcast

Cited in text: (Vendantam, 2015-Present)

 

Basic format (Podcast episode):

Author, I. I. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (No. ##) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Source. URL

Example (Podcast episode):

Vendantam, S. (Host). (2020, January 12). Emotional currency: How money shapes human relationships (No. 250) [Audio podcast episode]. In Hidden brain. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/01/10/795246685/emotional-currency-how-money-shapes-human-relationships

Cited in text: (Vendantam, 2020)

Powerpoint or lecture notes

Use this format to cite a lecture you attended, PowerPoint or other presentation. If you are citing lecture notes, provide a descriptive title in brackets, for example: [Lecture notes on the psychology of motivation]. The source can be a department and university.

Basic format (Lecture notes):

Lastname, I. I. (Year, Month Day). [Descriptive title of lecture]. Source. URL (if applicable)

Example (Lecture notes):

Jones, A. E. (2020, January 3). [Lecture notes on the psychology of motivation]. Department of Psychology, High Point University.

Cited in text: (Jones, 2020)

 

Basic format (Presentation):

Lastname, I. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of presentation [Format]. Source. URL

Example (Presentation)

Jones, A. E. (2020, January 3). The Psychology of motivation [PowerPoint slides]. Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.com/aejones/psychologyofmotivation

Cited in text: (Jones, 2020)