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Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sound Recording and Musical Composition

Sound Recordings and Musical Composition

The Author-Date System is inappropriate for most audiovisual materials. If you must use it and include audiovisual items, they are best mentioned in the running text and then grouped in the Reference List under a subheading such as "Sound Recordings."

Entire Album

R: The Beatles. 1967. Sgt. Pepper’s lonely heart club’s band. Capitol Records SMAS-2653. LP.

Individual Song

R: Sinatra, Frank. 1996. "Strangers in the night." On my way: The best of Frank Sinatra. Warner. Audiocassette.

Spoken Word Recording

R: Lee, Harper. 1988. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books. Cassette.

Music Score

R: Beethoven, Ludwig van. 1932. Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Live Performance

R: NONE - Citation of live performances is only done in notes, not in the Author-Date System. Instead, include the performance details in the running text.